作为一名产品经理,首先就要对什么是需求,需求有哪些属性,特征有所了解。

我来谈谈我对需求的理解。此文只涉及用户需求的概念和属性特征。

一切从用户需求出发

需求无处不在

我想直接引用马斯洛的原话:“人是一种不断需求的动物,除短暂的时间外,极少能达到完全满足的状况,一个欲望满足后,往往紧接着又被另一个欲望所占领。人几乎整个一生都在希望着什么,这是贯穿人整个一生的特点。”

因人的需求所引发的行动贯穿人的一生,那么人类社会就存在着这么一条真理:需求无处不在。一切价值的产生都依赖于人的需求。

满足用户需求才能创造价值

那么,任何产品要想有用户使用,就必须具备一定的价值,即通过满足用户的某种需求,给用户带去实实在在的且可感知的利益。用户在使用产品的过程中,他们的需求又往往不是单一地、孤立地存在的。举个例子,共享单车满足了人们短距离缺失交通工具的需求,也可能满足部分人群希望骑车锻炼身体的需求;再比如,奢侈箱包满足了人们的虚荣心,也提供了随身携带物品的作用。

只有满足用户需求,用户才能买单,才能创造价值。

需求层次论

讲到对需求的理解就不得不谈到“马斯洛需求层次理论”。

虽然网上很多文章都有讲马斯洛的需求层次论,我还是谈一下我对需求层次论的理解。

虽然马斯洛晚年在最上层又增加“超越自我”,不过我的理解,对于产品经理来说,这五个层次去理解需求就够用了。

马斯洛需求层次理论

生理需求

级别最低,如:食物、水、空气、住所、性欲、睡眠、健康 。

最基本、最强烈、最明显的对生存的需求,缺失型需求。

缺乏生理需求的特征:什么都不想,只想让自己活下去,思考能力、道德观明显变得脆弱。

例如:当一个人感到极度饥饿的时候,会选择去餐馆就餐或打开外卖软件叫个外卖,其他事情都不想去做。

互联网产品:各种人类身体的延伸设备、满足衣食住行需求的互联网产品、大多O2O项目等。

 

安全需求

同样属于低级别的需求,如:人身安全、生活稳定以及免遭痛苦、威胁或疾病、钱等。

未能得到相应满足时,会对个体行为起支配作用,使行为的目标指向安全,也属缺失型需求。

缺乏安全感的特征:感到自己对身边的事物受到威胁,觉得这世界是不公平或是危险的。认为一切事物都是危险的、而变的紧张不安、认为一切事物都是「恶」的。

例如:一个人正在用电脑进行购物,发现杀毒软件提示电脑中了木马病毒,这个时候人们会放下手头的事情去进行杀毒,如果杀毒失败不惜重装操作系统就是为上网创造一个安全的环境。

互联网产品:各种杀毒安全类软件、账号密码、权限控制策略、防伪防盗功能等。

 

归属与爱的需求

属于较高层次的需求,如:对友谊、爱情以及隶属关系的需求,此处可以理解为社交需求。

缺乏爱就会抑制成长和潜力的发展,个体会产生强烈的孤独感、疏离感,产生极度痛苦的体验,也属缺失型需求。

缺乏归属与爱的需求的特征:因为没有感受到身边人的关怀,而认为自己没有价值活在这世界上。 为了得到爱可能会采用极端手段,对人身及社会造成不利影响。

例如:一个没有受到父母关怀的青少年,认为自己在家庭中没有价值,所以沉迷于网络聊天去获取虚拟情感的归属。

互联网产品:即时通信软件、各种社区兴趣小组平台等

 

尊重需求

属于较高层次的需求,如:成就、名声、地位和晋升机会等。尊重需求既包括对成就或自我价值的个人感觉,也包括他人对自己的认可与尊重,属缺失型需求,可转化为成长型需求。

缺乏尊重需求的特征:变的很爱面子,积极地想通过行动得到别人认同,也很容易被虚荣所吸引。

例如:利用网络游戏来获取现实中自己无法获得的满足感、努力发微博让自己获取别人的关注。

互联网产品:社区发表意见、网络直播获取曝光、评论获取赞同等

 

自我实现的需求

高层次的需求,是针对真善美至高人生境界获得的需求,具体包括认知、审美、创造、发挥潜能的需要等等,在前面各低层次四项需求都能满足,最高层次的需求方能相继产生,是一种衍生性需求。

缺乏自我实现需求的特征:觉得自己的生活被空虚感包围着,想要做一些敢为天下先及有使命感的事,极需要有让他能更充实自己的事物。也开始认为价值观、道德观胜过金钱、爱人、尊重和社会的偏见。

例如:一位真心为了帮助他人而捐款的人。运动员追求把自己的体能练到极致,在世界大赛上争夺第一名或是单纯只为了超越自己。

互联网产品:游戏排行榜、积分成长体系、慈善捐款、网络创作平台等

 

各需要层次之间的关系

1、这五种需求像阶梯一样,从低到高。低一层次的需求获得满足后,就会向高一层次的需求发展。一般来说,只有在较低层次的需求得到满足之后,较高层次的需求才会有足够的活力驱动行为。已经满足的需求,不再是主要激励因素。

2、 这五种需求不是每个人都能获得满足的,越是靠近顶部的需要,满足的越少。

3、个体同时存在多种需要,因为人的行为往往是受多种需要支配的。每一个时期总有一种需要占支配地位。

4、缺乏型需求几乎人人都有,而成长型需求并不是所有人都有的。尤其是自我实现的需要,相当部分的人没有。

5、满足需求时不一定先从最低层次开始;有时个体为了满足高层次的需求也会选择牺牲低层次的需求。

6、任何一种需求并不因为满足而消失,高层次需求发展时,低层次需求仍然存在,在许多情景中,各层次的需求相互依赖与重叠。

7、一种需求只要得到某种程度的满足就可能产生新的更高层次的需求。

 

每一款互联网产品或功能都解决用户的某一个核心需求,一般满足的核心需求层次越低市场越大竞争越激烈。不同阶段,社会上急需解决的主要需求(或主要矛盾)会随着科技的发展和时代的变迁而发生变化。(好像有点扯,^_^)

需求有真伪

“用户需求”是用户做某件事情的背后动机、原因和目标。

每个用户需求的背后都有很多解决方案,千万不要把解决方案当成用户需求。

100多年前,亨利福特到处去问客户:“您需要一个什么样的更好的交通工具?”

几乎所有人的答案都是:“我要一匹更快的马”。

很多人听到这个答案,于是立马跑到马场去选马配种,以满足客户的需求。

而福特先生并没有跑去马场,而是多问了几个为什么,最终选择了制造汽车去满足客户的需求。

解决方案并不等于需求,产品经理切记不可机遇将想法落实到方案上,也不可完全按照用户描述的解决方案去做,而是要充分挖掘分析,找到真正的用户需求,及时扼制或修正不靠谱的“伪需求”。

“伪需求”有几个特征:缺少使用场景,小众需求,使用频率很低。

产生的原因主要有:凭主观臆断、盲目抄袭模仿、研究方法不当、单纯技术驱动、过早考虑赚钱等。

 

只有采用科学的用户需求分析方法,多问几个为什么,深挖用户深层需求才是做好产品的基础。

 

几丁,产品经理,个人站点xiaoliangshuo.com,QQ:331036923。

本文由@几丁原创发布,欢迎交流。未经许可,禁止转载。

一切从用户需求出发
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